* * *

OPERATING SYSTEM- TYPES AND DIFFERENCES

 

What is an OS???

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware.

Following are some of important functions of an operating System.

  • Memory Management
  • Processor Management
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • Control over system performance
  • Job accounting
  • Error detecting aids

Coordination between other software and users.

Now, coming to the types of OS which are widely used and available too :

Let's start with the most popular: Windows

With almost 90% of the operating system market share, you can't miss Windows. It's in commercial buildings, industrial facilities, as well as home computers. 
Windows, having been introduced in 1985, is a very mature and complete piece of software. Yet, it has it's flaws... 

Pros: 

  1. Compatibility: Almost every application, driver or game will work on Windows.
  2. Technical support: Having so many users, you can always find someone (either online or offline) who can help you with Windows.
  3. Huge quantity of function: When you get to know Windows well, you'll find out that there are so many functions that you can do almost anything quite easily.


Cons:

  1. Viruses: You may need to buy an antivirus program, although free ones exist.
  2. Slow: Windows, especially Vista and 7, requires a lot of computer resources (memory, processor, disk space), and thus, runs slower.
  3. Price: It easily costs over a hundred dollars.

Another big player: Macintosh

Apple's Macintosh OS is even older than Windows. It is the first ever successful graphical-based operating system, being released one year before it's Microsoft counterpart. 

Pros:

  1. Viruses: Apple Macs get almost no viruses. This is mostly due to Window's superior market share.
  2. Reliability: Macs only run on Apple computers, and are thus less prone to hardware and software crashing.
  3. Looks: Let's face it, most of the time, Mac just looks better than Windows.


Cons: 

  1. Expensive: Mac costs even more than Windows.
  2. Only available on Apple computers: If you already have a computer, you cannot install MAC on it unless it's an Apple. Otherwise, you must buy a new computer.
  3. Compatibility: Only a few programs will run on Mac, and almost no games.

Smaller but growing: Linux

Linux is GNU's answer to Mac and Windows. Yes, this means that Linux is FREE! By free, you can download, modify and redistribute it without spending a dime! . Linux is a younger player in the OS world, having been written in 1991, and is optimized for modern use (well, more than Windows and Mac). Unfortunately, it has some disadvantages also...

Pros:

  1. Price: Linux is F-R-E-E. You can download it, install it, use it, modify it... All for a whooping 0$.
  2. Variety: Linux is not a full operating system. It is just a kernel. To use the kernel, additional software needs to be bundled with Linux. Several hundreds of these bundles (called "distributions" or simply "distros") exist. The most popular ones include Ubuntu, Mint and Fedora. The good thing is, with so many different flavours of Linux, there is always one to suit your needs!
  3. Viruses: Although being more vulnerable to viruses than Mac (because it is open source), Linux still has very, very, very few viruses.


Cons:

  1. Complicated: Although some distros are quite easy to use, most of them will required a good deal of computer knowledge in order to get them to work. 
  2. Compatibility: Like Mac, representing only a few percents of the market share, Linux does not have as many programs and games as Windows.
  3. Vendors: You won't find a lot of vendors selling Linux computers. Usually, you'll just end up having to buy Windows computer, reformatting the hard drive, and installing Linux yourself.

Bottom line

In conclusion, no operating system is really better, the choice is up to you. If you're a gamer, then you have no choice, go for Windows. Programmers might prefer Linux and video/graphics producers will probably tend towards Mac. The best thing to do is probably to try each OS and see which is best for you!

 

PROCESSOR(CPU): The central processing Unit (CPU) ,also known as a processor , is the brain of the computer and thus the most important component .

The processors which are widely used include Intel Core i3, i5 and i7 processors which are similar to each other but in few areas they differ . There’s also no Core i3 processor in the new Y-Series of ultra-low-power chips, which replaces the Core M range (see Core M becomes Core i below). It’s called Core m3 instead.

Desktop

Core i3/Core m3

Core i5

Core i7

No. of cores

2

2-4

2-4

Frequency range

2.4-3.6 GHz

3-3.4 GHz

2-3.5GHz

Turbo boost

No

Yes

Yes

Hyper-Threading

Yes

No

Yes

Cache

3-4 mb

4-6 mb

8 mb

GRAPHICS

Low

Mid range

Best

PRICE

Low

Mid-range

Expensive

 

NOW , NEXT MAIN COMPONENT TO BE DISCUSSED IS RAM.

SO , WHAT IS RAM ????

RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computing device where the operating system (OS), application programs and data in current use are kept so they can be quickly reached by the device's processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than other kinds of storage in a computer, such as a hard disk drive (HDD), solid-state drive (SSD) or optical drive.

DRAM vs. SRAM

RAM comes in two primary forms:

  1. Dynamic random access memory. DRAM is what makes up the typical computing device RAM and, as noted above, requires constant power to hold on to stored data.

Static random access memory. SRAM doesn't need constant power to hold on to data, but the way the memory chips are made means they are much larger and thousands of times more expensive than an equivalent amount of DRAM. However, SRAM is significantly faster than DRAM. The price and speed differences mean SRAM is mainly used in small amounts as cache memory inside a device's processor.

 

Now, we will compare various versions of DDR:

So , overall it can be judged that it is better to have a DDR4 RAM as it is a better choice than the rest. Also one should have atleast or greater than 8GB RAM if one is an enthusiast in computing otherwise 2 or 4 GB will suffice but now a days it is recommended to go for 8 GB RAM if it comes in one’s budget .

 

Graphics card and its usage :

The most avialble and widely used graphics card under budget are :

  1. Firstly, we will begin with the entry level cards which could be found in the laptops near 50k and these are :

1) 940 M: It is the entry level processer focussed at providing multimedia and normal gaming. Games such as GTAIV will hardly run or even may lag.

2)940 MX and 150 MX:They are the  improvements over the previous one as they allow better gaming and high functioning opportunities.

A comparison between them :
GeForce MX150 vs GeForce 940MX — Spec Comparison

 

GeForce MX150

GeForce 940MX

Codename

N17P-G1

N16S-GTR-B/S

Architecture

Pascal 14nm

Maxwell 28nm

CUDA Cores

384

384

Raster Operation Pipelines (ROPs)

16

8

Core Clock

1468 MHz (Base)

1532 MHz (Boost)

1122 MHz (Base)

1242 MHz (Boost)

Memory Bus Bandwidth

64bit

64bit

Memory Type

GDDR5

GDDR5/DDR3

Max VRAM Supported

2048 MB

4096 MB

API Support

DirectX 12 (FL  12_1),

DirectX 12 (FL 11_0),

VR Ready

No 

No

G-Sync Support

Yes 

No

TDP 

~ 25W

15-30W

So, it can be seen that 150 MX is a tad better than 940 MX.

Next comparison is between Nvidia 950 M and 150 MX:

Reasons to consider 150 MX over 950 M are:

Much higher effective memory clock speed

6,008 MHz

vs

1,800 MHz

More than 3.2x higher effective memory clock speed

Higher clock speed

1,227 MHz

vs

993 MHz

Around 25% higher clock speed

Significantly higher turbo clock speed

1,468 MHz

vs

1,124 MHz

More than 30% higher turbo clock speed

Significantly higher memory clock speed

1,502 MHz

vs

900 MHz

More than 65% higher memory clock speed

Lower TDP

30W

vs

75W

2.5x lower TDP

 

 

So, if you have low budget go for 150 MX over 940MX,940M and 950 M

Higher memory bandwidth

80.2 GB/s

vs

48.06 GB/s

More than 65% higher memory bandwidth

More render output processors

16

vs

8

Twice as many render output processors

Better T-Rex score

3.69 frames/s

vs

2.39 frames/s

Around 55% better T-Rex score

Slightly more shading units

640

vs

384

256 more shading units

Slightly more texture mapping units

40

vs

24

16 more texture mapping units

But if you could spend a bit extra then go for 960M as it is better than 150MX because :

SO,here till now, 960M>150MX>950M>940M with respect to Nvidia.

Now , coming to some of the high range graphics card:

We will look for a quick comparison between them :

If you're about to buy a gaming laptop or a new graphics card for your PC, then you'll be looking at Nvidia's 10-series GPUs. The full range now includes the 1080 Ti, 1080, 1070, 1060 and entry-level 1050. AMD's current Radeon RX range competes with Nvidia only at the lower end. The Radeon RX Vega is coming soon.

How do their specifications differ?

Here's a summary of the cards' main specifications:

 

1080 Ti

1080

1070

1060

1050 Ti

1050

CUDA Cores

3584

2560

1920

1280

768

640

Core Clock

1480MHz

1607MHz

1506MHz

1506MHz

1290MHz

1354MHz

Boost Clock

1582MHz

1733MHz

1683MHz

1708MHz

1392MHz

1455Mhz

VRAM

11GB

8GB

8GB

6GB

4GB

2GB

Memory Clock

11GB/s

10Gb/s

8GB/s

8GB/s

7Gb/s

7Gb/s

Memory Bus Width

384-bit

256-bit

256-bit

192-bit

128-bit

128-bit

Memory Bandwidth

484GB/s

320GB/s

256GB/s

192GB/s

112GB/s

112GB/s

TDP

250W

180W

150W

120W

75W

75W

Power connector(s)

1x 8-pin, 1x 6-pin

1x 8-pin

1x 8-pin

1x 6-pin

None

None

SLI support

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

What is GDDR5X?

Apart from the two GTX 1080 cards, the range all use GDDR5 memory. But the top two use GDDR5X which allows double the theoretical bandwidth speed of traditional GDDR5 memory.

The higher memory bandwidth of the GTX 1080 (and Ti) allows it to run a third faster than the GTX 1070, GTX 1060 and other GDDR5 cards. Bottom line: they perform better.

What features do they have?

Every 10-series card is based on Nvidia's Pascal platform, which means they all support the same set of features. 

Which card should I buy?

If you want the best performance, the 1080 Ti is the obvious choice. However, not everyone needs this much power. Really, the 1080 Ti is only for those gaming in 4K at 'ultra' quality settings or those who have VR headset.

The GTX 1060 arguably provides the best bang for your buck in the range. It will happily play the latest titles in 1080p at maximum quality and can even handle 2560x1440.

But the 1050 (and Ti variant) are great upgrades for older PCs as they will also handle modern games at 1080p, and for between 100 and 150 represent good value as well.

 

NOW , WE SHOULD DISCUSS ABOUT SCREEN SIZE AND RESOLUTION

The display size is actually not a major requirement when it comes to laptops for engineering students. A 14 or 15-inch laptop is perfectly adequate — these sizes are good to go for designs and drawing-related works. However, that doesn't mean that a larger screen size is a bad thing. Just keep in mind the portability needs. A 17.3-inch screen is also not as portable as a 15-inch, but it might have more options and a bigger area for displaying the works.

While display sizes are not as crucial, the screen resolution is important. A higher screen resolution will allow more area for multiple windows. 1920x1080 pixels is the most recommended because it is the 1080p true HD quality. Laptops, videos, and movies these days are coming in 3k, 4k quality. So, 2k is the bare minimum.

 

Computer Industry Name

TV Industry Name

1366 x 768

HD (not Full HD)

 

1600 x 900

HD+

 

1920 x 1080

Full HD

1080p

2304×1440

Retina (Apple only)

 

2560 x 1440

QHD / WQHD

2K

2560×1600

Retina (Apple only)

 

2880×1800

Retina (Apple only)

 

3000 x 2000

PixelSense (MS Only)

 

3200 x 1800

QHD+

3K

3840 x 2160

UHD

4K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


If you don't know a laptop screen's gamut coverage, you can at least see if it is labeled as an IPS or OLED display. Better-quality laptop screens use IPS (in-plane switching) technology, which offers better viewing angles and more vibrancy than standard TN (twisted nematic) panels. If the manufacturer doesn't disclose that a screen is IPS, assume that it is not.

The most colorful type of screen you can get is one that uses OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. While traditional screens have a backlight that illuminates all  the pixels, with OLED, each pixel lights itself. That means that colors are truer and blacks are completely black. While many phones have OLED screens, only two laptops have this technology so far: the Alienware 13 and the Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Yoga.

Bottom Line

If you do nothing else, make sure you get a screen that has at least a 1920 x 1080 resolution. Think really hard about whether you want touch, and then consider the color quality and brightness. Worry about the refresh rate and response time only if you're a serious gamer.

NOW , COMING TO BATTERY LIFE

 As it is one of the most important part because a laptop exhausts easily then it would be better to go for the laptop with a better battery life .Recommendation for a student will be to go for a battery life of at least 6 hours .

Now ,coming to some laptop recommendations:
1) Laptops around 50k are :
1)Dell Vostro 3578

CPU: Intel Core i5 (8th Gen) | Graphics: AMD Radeon 520 2GB vRAM | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch HD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 1TB HDD

2)Lenovo Ideapad 320 80XL01D9IN

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB NVIDIA GeForce N16V-GMR1 (920MX) | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch HD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 2TB HDD

3)Asus R-Series R558UQ-DM983D

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB NVIDIA GeForce 940MX | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch FHD (1,080 x 1920) | Storage: 1TB HDD

4)HP AY503TX

CPU: Intel Core i5 (6th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB AMD Radeon R5 M430 | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch FHD (1,080 x 1,920) | Storage: 1TB HDD

5)Asus R558UQ-DM540D

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB NVIDIA GeForce 940MX | RAM: 4GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch FHD (1,080 x 1,920) | Storage: 1TB HDD

6)Lenovo Ideapad IP 320 80XL033MIN

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB GDDR5 NVIDIA GeForce 940MX | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch HD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 1TB HDD

 

7)HP 15-be001TX

CPU: Intel Core i5 (6th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB AMD Radeon R5 M430 | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch FHD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 1TB HDD

8)Acer Aspire E 15 E5-575G

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB GDDR5 NVIDIA GeForce 940MX | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch HD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 1TB HDD

 

9)Lenovo IP 320 80XL0375IN

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB GDDR5 NVIDIA GeForce 940MX | RAM: 4GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch FHD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 1TB HDD

10)Acer Aspire E 15 E5-575

CPU: Intel Core i5 (7th Gen) | Graphics: 2GB GDDR5 NVIDIA GeForce 940MX | RAM: 8GB DDR4 | Screen: 15.6-inch FHD (1,366 x 768) | Storage: 1TB HDD

11)Acer A515-51G-51G2 (CORE I5- 8250U/8GB/1TB/15.6FHD/Back Lit KB/2GB NVIDIA/DOS ), Steel Gray

  • NVIDIA Geforce MX150 Graphics Card
  • This is a Linux-based laptop out of the box. You will need to install your own operating system (such as Windows) separately. Operating System disk not part of package
  • Intel Core i5 Processor (8th Gen)
  • 8 GB DDR4 RAM
  • 64 bit Windows 10 Operating System
  • 1 TB HDD
  • 15.6 inch Display

Now , we will discuss some laptops if you have around 60k:

1. Lenovo IP 520 Laptop

Lenovo IP 520 powered by the Intel 7th Gen Core i7-7500U processor with single core clock speed from 2.7 GHz and extra boost in performance 3.5 Ghz speed.  8 GB of RAM offers an enhanced user experience for work and thanks to NVIDIA Geforce 940MX – 4 GB of graphics memory for playing good-quality games.

2. HP 15G-br010TX Laptop

HP Envy 15G-BR010TX Laptop has Core 7th generation i7-7500U processor with a base clock of 2.7 GHz and boost upto 3.5 GHz speed. It has 4GB AMD Radeon 530 graphics for general multimedia and light gaming. It’s full HD display perfectly suited for daily needs and 256 GB SSD memory help laptop to boot up fast. 8 GB RAM offers a good user experience and enhanced performance.

3. MSI CX62 7QL Gaming Laptop

MSI CX62 7QL Laptop equipped with latest 7th Gen. Intel® Core™ i7-7500U processor offers two CPU cores clocked at 2.7 and turbo boost upto 3.5 GHz. NVIDIA Geforce GTX 940MX 2GB graphics card is designed to deliver a premium laptop experience, giving you up to 4X faster graphics performance for gaming and also for video-editing applications. MSI Cooler Boost Technology provides powerful cooling always keeps the system cool.

4. HP 15-au623tx Laptop

HP Envy 15-AU623TX Laptop has Core 7th generation i5-7200U processor with a base clock of 2.5 GHz and boost upto 3.1 GHz speed. It has 4GB NVIDIA Geforce 940MX for faster gaming performance while playing games and running heavy application. 8 GB RAM offers a good user experience and enhanced performance.

5. Acer Swift SF315-51G Laptop

Acer SF315-51G Laptop is an excellent laptop with all the ingredients to fulfill your daily requirements. It is equipped with latest 8th generation Intel Core i5-8250 processor and 8 GB of DDR4 RAM, for multitasking experience. Along with 128 GB SSD memory help laptop to boot up fast. The NVIDIA GeForce MX 150 2GB graphics offers a truely immersive cinematic experience on its Full HD display.

It will give power backup around 4.5-5.0 Hrs on normal usage.

6. Acer Nitro AN515-51 Gaming Laptop

Acer Nitro 5 Gaming Laptop powered by Intel Core i5 7300HQ processor and NVIDIA GeForce GTX1050Ti with 4GB dedicated GDDR5 VRAM which combines multi-core processing and powerful graphics for the superior gaming experience. Its 15.6-inch high-def display, giving you ample space for opening multiple windows and digital entertainment. For smooth multitasking and excellent performance with 8GB RAM which is expandable till 32GB and 1TB HDD.

7. Lenovo IP 320 Laptop

Lenovo IdeaPad 320 offer 7th Gen Intel® Core™ i5-7200 processor that provide 2.5 GHz with Turbo Boost Upto 3.1 GHz for lightning and fast reliable performance. NVIDIA® GeForce™ 920MX graphics card for smoother gaming experience and run multiple programs. For smooth multitasking and excellent performance with 8GB RAM which is expandable till 16GB.

8. Acer A515-51G Laptop

Acer A515-51G Laptop is an excellent laptop with all the ingredients to fulfill your daily requirements. It is equipped with latest 8th generation Intel Core i5-8250 processor and 8 GB of DDR4 RAM, for multitasking experience. The NVIDIA GeForce MX 150 2GB graphics offers a truely immersive cinematic experience on its HD display. It will give power backup around 4.5-5.0 Hrs on normal usage.

9. Lenovo Ideapad 510 Laptop

Lenovo IP 510 Laptop powered by the powerful Intel Core 7th generation i5-7200U processor that provides 2.5 GHz with Turbo Boost Upto 3.1 GHz. 8GB RAM for fast and improved performance and equipped with NVIDIA Geforce N16S-GTR for gaming performance and video editing.

10. HP 15-AU620TX Laptop

HP 15-AU620TX Laptop is powered by a 7th generation Intel Core i5 processor. The 2.5 GHz processor with Turbo Boost Upto 3.1 GHz, along with 8 GB of DDR4 RAM which is expandable up to 16 GB, makes multitasking smooth and fast. NVIDIA GeForce GTX 940MX GPU, with 2 GB of graphics memory, this laptop renders fluid graphics.

11. Lenovo IP 320E-15IKB Laptop

Lenovo IP 320-15IKB powered by the Intel 7th Gen Core i5-7200U processor with single core clock speed from 2.5 GHz and extra boost in performance 3.1 Ghz speed.  8 GB of RAM offers an enhanced user experience for work and thanks to NVIDIA Geforce 920MX – 2 GB of graphics memory for playing good-quality games.

12. HP 15g-br011TX Laptop

HP 15G-BR011TX Laptop is powered by a 7th generation Intel Core i5 processor. The 2.5 GHz processor with Turbo Boost Upto 3.1 GHz, along with 8 GB of DDR4 RAM which is expandable up to 16 GB, makes multitasking smooth and fast. AMD Radeon HD 520 GPU, with 2 GB of graphics memory.

13. Apple MacBook Air

MacBook Air is powered by fifth-generation Intel Core i5 processors. This ultra-efficient architecture was designed to use less power and still deliver high performance. The Intel HD Graphics 6000 processor offers advanced performance and other graphics-intensive tasks. The SSD storage in MacBook Air is up to 17 times faster than a 5400-rpm notebook hard drive. MacBook Air gets up to 12 hours of battery life on a single charge.

Laptops around 40k:

Dell Vostro 3478: i5 8250, 4GB RAM, DOS, AMD 520, 14″

  •  

 

NOW, ONE OF THE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS MOTHERBOARD SHOULD BE DISCUSSED

 

The mother board best specifications should be :

 Display Port
 HDMI port
 LAN / RJ45 port
 USB 3.1
 USB 3.0
 USB 2.0
 Optical S/PDIF out
 Audio jacks
 Clear CMOS button
 Wi-Fi antenna ports
 USB BIOS flashback button

 

NOW , COMING TO PORTS : RJ 45

A registered jack (RJ) is a standardized physical network interface for connecting telecommunications or data equipment. The physical connectors that registered jacks use are mainly of the modular connector and 50-pin miniature ribbon connector types. The most common twisted-pair connector is an 8-position, 8-contact (8P8C) modular plug and jack commonly referred to as an RJ45 connector.

RJ45

  • An 8-pin/8-position plug or jack is commonly used to connect computers onto Ethernet-based local area networks (LAN).
  • Two wiring schemes–T568A and T568B–are used to terminate the twisted-pair cable onto the connector interface.

 

HDMI PORT : Short for High Definition Multimedia Interface, HDMI is a connector and cable capable of transmitting high-quality and high-bandwidth streams of audio and video between devices. The HDMI technology is used with devices such as an HDTV, Projector, DVD player, or Blu-ray player. 

 

 

SERIAL ATA : Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives.

 

 

NOW , IT IS TURN TO MOVE ON TO DISCUSS ABOUT ONE OF THE  THE PERMANENT MEMORY STORAGES HARD DISK STORAGE DEVICE.

The hard disk drive is the main, and usually largest, data storage hardware device in a computer. The operating system, software titles, and most other files are stored in the hard disk drive.

The hard disk drive is the main, and usually largest, data storage hardware device in a computer. The operating system, software titles, and most other files are stored in the hard disk drive.

The hard drive is sometimes referred to as the "C drive" due to the fact that Microsoft Windows designates the "C" drive letter to the primary partition on the primary hard drive in a computer by default.

NOW , WE SHOULD LOOK INTO SSD(SOLID STATE DRIVES)

An SSD does functionally everything a hard drive does, but data is instead stored on interconnected flash memory chips that retain the data even when there's no power present. But  , people favour HDD more than SDD since HDDs are less expensive but for people who can afford the recommendation would be to have SDD also as they provide enough space and provides quick boot-ups and are faster than HDD. SDD also comes in various memory ranges the most common being 128 GB to 4 TB SDD but it is expensive as compared to HDD . Best one to buy would be 500 MB SDD considering its expense.